Present Perfect

AFFIRMATIVE

We use have or has (for he, she ,it) and the past participle of the main verb. The past participle if formed by adding the suffix -ed if the verb is regular and we use the third form if the verb is irregular.

1. I have/’ve played1. We have/’ve played
2. You have/’ve played2. You have/’ve played
3. He/She/It has/’s played3. They have/’ve played

NEGATIVE

We use the negative particle not after have/has to form negative sentences.

1.I have not/haven’t played1. We have not/haven’t played
2. You have not/haven’t played2. You have not/haven’t played
2. He/She/It has not/hasn’t played3. They have not/haven’t played

INTERROGATIVE

We change the place of have/has and the subject of the sentence to form questions.

1. Have I played?1. Have we played?
2. Have you played?2. Have you played?
3. Has he/she/it played?3. Have they played?

We use the Present Perfect for:

1.ACTIONS THAT HAPPENED AT AN UNSPECIFIED MOMENT IN THE PAST

Example: I have seen this film.

2. GENERAL EXPERIENCE ( often with ever and never)

Example: Have you ever tried Chinese food?

I have never tried Chinese food.

3. RECENTLY COMPLETED ACTIONS THE RESULT OF WHICH IS VISIBLE OR IMPORTANT NOW (often with just, already, yet).

We use just and already in positive sentences between have/has and the past participle. We use yet in negative and interrogative sentences at the end of the sentence.

Example: I have just made my bed. He has already done the shopping. Have you cooked the pizza yet? They haven’t arrived yet. 

4. ACTIONS THAT STARTED IN THE PAST AND CONTINUE UP TO NOW ( usually with since and for)

The Present Perfect is used for actions that started in the past and continue up now with state verbs and in negative sentences. State verbs express feelings, states and emotions rather than actions ( believe, imagine, like, know, want, think, love, hate etc.)

We use since before a stated moment in the past ( since yesterday/2005/last year etc). We use for before a period of time ( for three years/ ten minutes/ six hours etc)

Example: I have known him since 2001. I have known him for 18 years.

I haven’t played computer games since last week. I haven’t played computer games for seven days.

You can try the quiz here